European Commission Karate Club

European Commission Karate Club

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Terms and Names

It is helpful to know some of the commonly used terms - check here!

    Numbers

    1.     ichi

    2.     ni

    3.     san

    4.     shi

    5.     go

    6.     roku

    7.     shichi

    8.     hachi

    9.     ku (kyuu)

    10.   juu

    A
    age: rising, upward

    ago: chinai: union, meeting; harmony

    aiki: harmony, union of energiesaikido: way of harmony; Japanese martial art of joint locking and throwing

    aiuchi: simultaneously striking (each other); clash

    aka: redashi: leg, foot

    ashi-barai: foot sweep

    atama: head

    ate: hit, strike, smash

    atemi: hit to body

    awase: combined, joined together

    ayumi: walking, stepping


    B
    barai (harai): sweep

    basami (hasami): scissors

    bo: staff, long stick used as weapon

    bokken: wooden sword (katana) usually used for practice

    bu: martial; war

    budo: martial way; way of war

    bunkai: analysis; study of kata applications

    buse (fuse): lay down

    bushi: warrior

    bushido: way of the warrior; warrior code


    C
    chakugan: focus attention; viewpoint; looking at your opponent

    chi gung (qigong): (Chinese) breath skill, breathing exercises to promote internal energy development

    chika-ma: short distance

    choku: direct, straight

    chuan fa: (Chinese) fist way; Chinese martial art of striking and kicking, also known as kung fu or wushuchudan: middle level

    chui:  warning; usually the second warning in a competition match


    D
    dachi (tachi): stance; standing

    dai (tai): big; great; body

    dan: leveldaoshi (taoshi): topple, make fall

    deshi: student

    do: path, way; torso

    dogi (gi): training uniform

    dojo: place for studying the way; the room in which one practices budodomo

    arigato: thank you

    dori (tori): hold, grab; attacker, the one applying the technique 

    ukedosoku: across torso

    dozo: please


    E
    embusen: line on floor; performance line of a kata, kata floor pattern

    empi (hiji): elbow

    ensho: heel

    eri: collar


    F
    fudo: unmoving, rooted

    fukushin: corner judge, assistant judge

    fumikomi: thrusting step, stomp kick

    furi: swinging

    fuse (buse): lay down


    G
    gaeshi (kaeshi): reversing, returning

    gaijin: outsider, foreigner, non-Japanese

    gaiwan: outer forearm

    garami (karami): entangle, entwine

    gari (kari): cut, reap

    gassho: joined palm

    gasshuku: special training camp

    gatame (katame): lock, hold, tighten

    gedan: lower level

    eiko (keiko): training, practice

    geri (keri): kick

    gi (dogi): training uniformgo: five; after

    go-no-sen: seize the initiative later, usually involving a defense and then a counterattack

    goshi (koshi): hip; ball of the foot

    guruma (kuruma): wheel

    gyaku: reverse, opposite


    H
    hachi: eight

    hachiji: shape of character for hachi (8)

    hadaka: naked

    hai: yes

    haishu: backhand

    haisoku: instep of foot

    haito: sword-ridge; ridge-hand

    haiwan: back-arm, back of forearm

    hajime: begin

    hakama: traditional pleated pants worn by budo students

    han: half

    hangetsu: half-moon

    hanmi: half-body, body turning

    hansoku: rule violation; disqualification from a competition event

    hantai: opposite side; oppositionhantei: decision

    hara: stomach, belly

    harai (barai): sweepharakiri: belly cut; form of ritual suicide

    hasami (basami): scissors

    hayai: quick, fast; early

    heian: peace and stability; peaceful mind

    heiko: parallel

    heisoku: closed feet, feet together

    henka: change sides; variation of a form or technique

    hidari: left

    hiji (empi): elbow

    hiki: pull; retreat

    hikiashi: pulling foot, pulling leg

    hikite: pulling hand

    hikiwake: tie, equal, draw

    hineri: twisting

    hiragana: written symbols used as part of the Japanese writing system

    hiraken: flat fist, fore-knuckle fist

    hiraki: lateral dodging

    hitai: forehead

    hiza: kneehodoki: freeing

    hokotenkan: changes in directionhonbu: headquarters


    I
    iaido: way of harmony in action; Japanese martial art of drawing and cutting with the sword

    ibuki: breath; forced abdominal breathing usually accompanied by throat contraction and guttural sound

    ichi: one

    ikken-hissatsu: one fist certain kill, to kill with one blow

    inyo: symbol of the JKA

    ippon: one point, one side, one step, etc.

    ippon-ken: one-knuckle fistirimi: body entering


    J
    jiku-ashi: pivot leg; supporting leg

    jime (shime): strangulation, choking

    jinchu: philtrum area just above upper lip, part of the maxilla

    jiyu (jyu): freestyle, free

    jiyu-ippon-kumite: 1-step free sparring, semi-free sparring

    jiyu-kumite: free sparringjo: short wooden staff

    jodan: upper level

    jogai: out of boundsjotai: upper body

    ju: soft, gentle; ten

    judo: gentle way; Japanese martial art of wrestling

    juji: cross, shape of character for 

    ju (10)jujutsu: gentle art; Japanese martial art of striking, grappling, and joint manipulation

    jun: follow, chase; corresponding to

    jutsu: art, technique, skill

    K
    kachi: victory, win; value, merit

    kaeshi (gaeshi): reversing, returning

    kafukubu: abdomen

    kagi: hook

    kaikomi: lifting the knee high and tucked in close to body (preparing for kick)

    kaisho: open hand(s)

    kaiten: rotation

    kakato: heel

    kakiwake: wedge; push aside; separate

    kakuto: crane-head; back of wrist

    kamae: posture, position, guard

    kamaete: go into position

    kanji: Chinese script used as part of the Japanese writing system

    kansetsu: joint; joint locking

    kao: face

    kara: empty

    karami (garami): entangle, entwine

    karate (karate-do): empty hand; Japanese martial art of punching, striking, and kicking

    karateka: student of karate

    kari (gari): cut, reap

    kata: form, shape, pattern; one side; shoulder

    katakana: written symbols used as part of the Japanese writing system

    katame (gatame): lock, hold, tighten

    katana: Japanese single-edged curved sword, preferred weapon of the samurai

    keage: snap kick; rising kick

    keiko (geiko): training

    keikoku: caution; usually the first warning in a competition match

    keimochi: Okinawan noble class

    keito: chicken head

    kekomi: thrust kick

    ken: fist; sword

    kensei: diversion, feint; sword saint, title given to a warrior of legendary skill in swordsmanship

    kendo: way of the sword; Japanese martial art of fencing

    kentsui: hammer-fist

    keri (geri): kickki: internal energy, spirit, breath (pronounced chi in Chinese)

    kiai: union of energy; spirit yell

    kiba: horse-riding

    kihon: basic, fundamental

    kihon-gohon-kumite: basic 5-step sparring

    kihon-ippon-kumite: basic 1-step sparring

    kihon-sanbon-kumite: basic 3-step sparring

    kiken: withdraw, retreat; forfeit (a match)

    kime: focus; to decide; deciding factor; winning move

    kinteki: testicles, groin region

    ki-o-tsuke: ready at attention (in musubi-dachi)

    kirigaeshi: returning cut

    kirikae: switch, change

    kirikae-ashi: switch the feet

    kiritsu: stand up

    kitsutsuki: woodpecker

    kizami: jab; to nick, notch, or carve out; cutting; attacking with the lead hand or leg

    ko: small

    kobudo: ancient martial arts; the study of ancient weaponry

    kohai: junior student

    koho: rear, behind, back direction

    koko: tiger-mouth

    kokoro: spirit, heart

    kokutsu: back bend

    kokyu: breathing

    komi: thrust, drive forward

    kosa: cross

    koshi (goshi): hip; ball of the foot

    koshiki: traditional, old style

    kote: wrist

    kubotan: self defense keychain developed by Takayuki Kubota

    kudaki: crush; break into pieces

    kumade: bear-hand

    kumi: meeting; grip

    kumite: sparring; meeting of hands

    kung fu (gung fu): (Chinese) great skill; martial art of striking and kicking, also known as chuan fa or wushukuro: blackkuruma (guruma): wheelkutsu (kussu): bend

    kuzushi: unbalancing an opponent; demolish, collapse

    kyoku: extreme; ultimate

    kyu: rank; non-black belt; nine

    kyusho: pressure point

    L
    M
    ma: distance

    maai: proper meeting distance between two partners

    mae: front

    maki: roll up, wrap

    makiwara: rolled straw; striking post

    manji: swastika; swirling, vortex

    matte: stop, wait

    mawashi: rotating, turning; circular

    mawate: turn

    men: face

    mienai: could not see

    migi: right

    mikazuki: crescent-moon

    mizu-nagare: water flowing

    mokuso: meditation

    morote: both hands, double-hand

    moto-no-ichi: back to starting positions

    muboubi: defenseless

    mudansha: student possessing 

    kyu level, not black belt

    mugorei: without count, no count

    mukae: meet; go ahead

    muki (muke): facing, direction

    mune (muna): chest

    mushin: no mind, without thought

    muso: incomparablemusubi: united


    N
    nagashi: flowing

    nage: throw, projection

    naiwan: inner forearm

    nakae: enter the fighting area

    nami-gaeshi: returning wave

    naname: diagonal

    naore: recover

    nei chia: (Chinese) internal styles (of martial arts)

    neji: twisting, spiralling

    neko-ashi: cat-leg

    ni: twonigiri: control

    nukete-masu: off target attack

    nukite: spear-hand


    O
    o: big, great

    obi: belt

    okuri: sliding; sendingomote: front; facing; exterior

    osae: pressing; holding, immobilizing

    oshi: pushing

    osu (oss): word of acknowledgement used in many karate dojo (implies "yes, I understand") 

    otagai: mutual, each other

    otoshi: falling, dropping

    oyo: application (of kata)


    P
    pankration: (Greek) all powerful;  a "no rules" match of striking and wrestling introduced in the 33rd Olympics


    Q
    qigong (chi gung): (Chinese) breath skill, breathing exercises to promote internal energy development


    R
    randori: taking chaos,grasping freedom; freestyle practice

    rei: bow; respectren: alternate, consecutive

    renoji: L-shape, shape of character for 

    reroku: six

    ryo: both, two

    ryoken: both fistsryosho: both palms

    ryosoku: both sides

    ryu: school, style

    ryuun: current clouds, flowing clouds


    S
    sabaki: shifting, dodging, displacing

    sagiashi: crane-legsakate: throat

    saken: left fist

    samurai: to serve; ancient Japanese warriors

    san: threes

    anchin: hour-glass; 3 wars

    sankaku: triangle

    sasae-ashi: supporting leg

    sashi: stealthy

    sasho: left palm

    seiken: fore-fist

    seiritsu: line up

    seiryuto: ox-jaw; sabre

    seiza: sit correctly; kneel (position before and after budo class)

    sempai: senior student

    sen: before; advance; reaction; initiative

    sen-no-sen: seize the initiative earlier, usually involving a simultaneous counter-attack

    sen-sen-no-sen: seize the initiative in anticipation of opponent's attack (before the actual attack)

    sensei: born before; teacher

    senshu: competitor

    sentei: selection, grouping

    seppuku: ritual suicideshi (yon): four

    shiai: match, contest

    shichi (nana): seven

    shihan: teacher; master teacher

    shihon: four directions, four points, etc.

    shikkaku: disqualification (from entire tournament)

    shime (jime): strangulation, choking

    shinai: practice sword made out of split bamboo, usually used in kendo

    shiro: white

    shitei: designation; mandatory

    shizen: natural

    sho: palm; small

    shobu: contest, match

    shodan: first level black belt

    shomen: front; top of head

    shoto: pine waves, whispering pines; Gichin Funakoshi's pen-name

    shugo: meeting

    shuto: sword-hand, knife-hand

    shuwan: anterior forearm

    sode: sleeve

    soete: added hand

    soku: foot

    sokumen: side

    sokuto: blade of foot

    sonomama: as is, the same

    soto: outside, exterior

    suihei: horizontal

    suigetsu: solar plexus

    sukui: scooping; spoon

    sun: unit of length, about 3 cm

    sun-dome: to stop a technique just before making contact

    suri (yori): sliding, gliding

    sutemi: abandon body; sacrifice throw

    suwari: kneeling


    T
    tachi (dachi): stance, standing

    tadzuna: bridle, reins

    tai (dai): big; great; body

    tai chi (tai chi chuan): (Chinese) supreme ultimate (fist); Chinese internal martial art performed very slowly 

    tai-sabaki: body shifting, dodging

    tameshiwari: breaking test; breaking bricks, wood, etc.

    tanden: center of abdomen, body's center of energy

    tanto: short sword, knife, dagger

    taoshi (daoshi): topple, make fall

    tatami: training mats; straw matstate: vertical; stand; build

    te: hand

    te-hodoki: hand freeing

    teinoji: T-shape, shape of character for teiteisho: palm-heel

    tekki: iron horseman

    tekubi: wrist

    ten: sky, heaven; universe

    tenkan: divert, turning, circular movement

    tettsui: iron hammer, hammer-fist

    tenbin: balance

    to-ma: long distance

    tobi (tobikomi): leap, jump, fly

    tobu: head

    tode: Chinese hand; Okinawan martial art preceding karate

    tokui: favorite; best, one's specialty

    tora: tiger

    tori (dori): hold, grab; take; attacker, the one applying the technique to the uke

    torimasen: did not take; competitor did not receive a point, no point 

    tsugi: follow; shuffle (shuffle step)

    tsukami (zukami): grasp, grip, grab

    tsuru: crane

    tsuki